While it's not known for sure what thorny plant was used for the crown of thorns Jesus wore as he died on the cross, it's believed to be Euphorbia milii. The plant is native to Madagascar, but that's not to say it wasn't in Israel also.
It certainly has plenty of thorns along its branches, unlike other Euphorbias we're familiar with (Snow on the Mountain, for example). However, the blooms give away its heritage, as they are typical of the genus. It comes in several colors, including red, pink, yellow, and white.
I've found this Euphorbia to be quite easily grown as a potted house plant that I move outside for the summer. It likes its soil to be well-draining and on the dry side. It's happiest in full sun, where the color of its bloom is deeper than if it's in less lighted areas. While it's a year-round bloomer, it has less blooms in the clusters in the winter - even in a south window - than when it's in full sun outside in the summer.